Anti Federalist Papers

Patrick HENRY (1736 - 1799)

During the period of debate over the ratification of the Constitution, numerous independent local speeches and articles were published all across the country. Initially, many of the articles in opposition were written under pseudonyms, such as "Brutus", "Centinel", and "Federal Farmer". Eventually, famous revolutionary figures such as Patrick Henry came out publicly against the Constitution. They argued that the strong national government proposed by the Federalists was a threat to the rights of individuals and that the President would become a king. They objected to the federal court system created by the proposed constitution. This produced a phenomenal body of political writing; the best and most influential of these articles and speeches were gathered by historians into a collection known as the Anti-Federalist Papers in allusion to the Federalist Papers. (Summary by Ticktockman)


No. 1    General introduction: a dangerous plan of benefit only to the “aristocratic combination”
No. 2    We have been told of phantoms
No. 3    New constitution creates a national government; will not abate foreign influence; dangers of civil war and despotism
No. 4    Foreign wars, civil wars, and Indian wars - three bugbears
No. 5    Scotland and england - a case in point
No. 6    The hobgoblins of anarchy and dissensions among the states
No. 7    Adoption of the constitution will lead to civil war
No. 8    The power vested in congress of sending troops for suppressing insurrections will always enable them to stifle the first struggles of freedom
No. 9    A consolidated government is a tyranny
No. 10    On the preservation of parties, public liberty depends
No. 11    Unrestricted power over commerce should not be given the national government
No. 12    How will the new government raise money?
No. 13    The expense of the new government
No. 14    Extent of territory under consolidated government too large to preserve liberty or protect property
No. 15    Rhode Island is right!
No. 16    Europeans admire and federalists decry the present system
No. 17    Federalist power will ultimately subvert state authority
No. 18-20 What does history teach?
No. 21    Why the articles failed
No. 22    Articles of confederation simply requires amendments, particularly for commercial power and judicial power; constitution goes too far
No. 23    Certain powers necessary for the common defense, can and should be limited
No. 24    Objections to a standing army (part 1)
No. 25    Objections to a standing army (part 2)
No. 26    The use of coercion by the new government (part 1)
No. 27    The use of coercion by the new government (part 2)
No. 28    The use of coercion by the new government (part 3)
No. 29    Objections to national control of the militia
No. 30-31 A Virginia antifederalist on the issue of taxation
No. 32    Federal taxation and the doctrine of implied powers (part 1)
No. 33    Federal taxation and the doctrine of implied powers (part 2)
No. 34    The problem of concurrent taxation
No. 35    Federal taxing power must be restrained
No. 36    Representation and internal taxation
No. 37    Factions and the constitution
No. 38    Some reactions to federalist arguments
No. 39    Appearance and reality-the form is federal; the effect is national
No. 40    On the motivations and authority of the founding fathers
No. 41-43 The quantity of power the union must possess is one thing; the mode of exercising the powers given is quite a different     consideration
No. 44    What congress can do; what a state can not
No. 45    Powers of national government dangerous to state governments; new york as an example
No. 46    Where then is the restraint?
No. 47    Balance of departments not achieved under new constitution
No. 48    No separation of departments results in no responsibility
No. 49    On constitutional conventions (part 1)
No. 50    On constitutional conventions (part 2)
No. 51    Do checks and balances really secure the rights of the people?
No. 52    On the guarantee of congressional biennial elections
No. 53    A plea for the right of recall
No. 54    Apportionment and slavery: northern and southern views
No. 55    Will the house of representatives be genuinely representative? (part 1)
No. 56    Will the house of representatives be genuinely representative? (part 2)
No. 57    Will the house of representatives be genuinely representative? (part 3)
No. 58    Will the house of representatives be genuinely representative? (part 4)
No. 59    The danger of congressional control of elections
No. 60    Will the constitution promote the interests of favorite classes?
No. 61    Questions and comments on constitutional provisions regarding the election of congressmen
No. 62    On the organization and powers of the senate (part 1)
No. 63    On the organization and powers of the senate (part 2)
No. 64    On the organization and powers of the senate (part 3)
No. 65    On the organization and powers of the senate (part 4)
No. 66    From North Carolina
No. 67    Various fears concerning the executive department
No. 68    On the mode of electing the president
No. 69    The character of the executive office
No. 70    The powers and dangerous potentials of his elected majesty
No. 71    The presidential term of office
No. 72    On the electoral college; on re eligibility of the president
No. 73    Does the presidential veto power infringe on the separation of departments?
No. 74    The president as military king
No. 75    A note protesting the treaty-making provisions of the constitution
No. 76-77 An antifederalist view of the appointing power under the constitution
No. 78-79 The power of the judiciary (part 1)
No. 80    The power of the judiciary (part 2)
No. 81    The power of the judiciary (part 3)
No. 82    The power of the judiciary (part 4)
No. 83    The federal judiciary and the issue of trial by jury
No. 84    On the lack of a bill of rights
No. 85    Concluding remarks: evils under confederation exaggerated; constitution must be drastically revised before adoption



Henry Knox's picture

I hope they will be restored.

Jan@NLA's picture

I just clicked one recording and it played immediately. Please try again.

Jan's picture

hello  i believe the paper I am looking for is not here. Anti federalist paper number nine 9  THE ONE WHICH  TELLS  US WHO AND HOW THE ARISTOCRATS FOOLED WE THE PEOPLE. I HAVE MADE NOTE OF THIS PAPER BEFORE, BUT THERE IS JUST TOOO MUCH INFO ABOUT OUR ENSLAVEMENT TO DIGEST.  IM TYPING IN CAPS BC ITS EASIER FOR ME TO SEE LOL.  IF THE PAPERS HAVE ANY TRUTH TO THEM, T H I S IS THE EVIDENCE.!!  Who was montezuma??  The signatore of the number nine paper and just an all around bad ass!! As in evil.  I beieve it's true, they have stacked the courts and this paper tells you how.  One more thing, t h e y did not want the bill of rights! They called it a cog in their wheels of  rule.       Thank you. Cindy

deckape's picture

The Rothschild banksters backed the federalists. The federalists, as a group, represented Rothschild interests. And that is how all this crap unfolded. Be advised.